BETHESDA, Md., Wed., Oct. ,4, 2006 The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), today announced the latest round of grant awards totaling more than $13 million to speed the development of innovative sequencing technologies that reduce the cost of DNA sequencing and expand the use of genomics in medical research and health care.”There has been significant progress Nike LeBron 12 over the last several years to develop faster and more cost effective sequencing technologies and, we are committed to supporting these innovative efforts to benefit scientific labs and medical clinics,” said NHGRI Director Francis S. “These technologies will eventually revolutionize the way that biomedical research and the practice of medicine are done.”Since 1990, NHGRI has invested approximately $380 million to develop and improve DNA sequencing technologies. DNA sequencing costs have fallen more than 50 fold over the past decade, fueled in large part by tools, technologies and process improvements developed as part of the successful project to sequence the human genome. However, it still costs around $10 million to sequence 3 billion base pairs the amount of DNA found in the genomes of humans and other mammals.NHGRI’s near term goal is to lower the cost of sequencing a mammalian sized genome to $100,000, allowing researchers to sequence the genomes of hundreds or even thousands of people participating in studies to identify genes that contribute to common, complex diseases. Ultimately, NHGRI’s vision is to cut the cost of whole genome sequencing to $1,000 or less, which will enable the sequencing of an individual’s genome during routine medical care. The ability to sequence an individual genome cost effectively could enable health care professionals to tailor diagnosis, treatment and prevention to each person’s unique genetic profile.The new grants will fund nine investigators developing revolutionary technologies that may make it feasible to sequence a genome for $1,000, as well as two investigators developing “near term” technologies to sequence a genome for $100,000. Both approaches have many complementary elements that integrate biochemistry, chemistry and physics with engineering to enhance the whole effort to develop the next generation of DNA sequencing and analysis technologies. Since 2004, NHGRI has awarded $83 million to investigators to develop both “near term” and revolutionary sequencing technologies.”It is very important that we encourage and support the development of innovative sequencing technologies. “We look forward to seeing which of these technologies fulfill their promise and achieve the quantum leaps that are needed to take DNA sequencing to the next level.””$1,000 Air Jordan 23s Genome” GrantsNHGRI’s “Revolutionary Genome Sequencing Technologies” grants have as their goal the development of breakthrough technologies that will enable a human sized genome to be sequenced for $1,000 or less. This method uses the natural catalytic cycle of DNA polymerase to capture just a single DNA base on an immobilized primer/template. A fluorescence scanner will be used to scan and Air Jordan 2010 identify Air Jordan Fusion 4 hundreds of thousands of molecules at once. Then the cycle will be repeated. This phased award will increase if specific milestones are met in the initial experiments.J. Several groups are developing nanopores (holes about 2 nanometers in diameter) for use as DNA sequence transducers and propose to detect an electrical, or ionic, signal from individual DNA molecules. The goal of this group is to fabricate nanoscale channels in which single molecules of DNA will pass between nano electrodes that are less than 2 nanometers apart, to measure an electric current that will identify individual bases. The investigator will attempt to demonstrate that more than 1 billion individual DNA molecules can be sequenced in massive parallel though a process involving cyclic sequencing by ligation, a process where an enzyme is used to join pieces of DNA together. This phased award will increase if specific milestones are met in the initial experiments. A novel sequencing instrument will be fabricated, along with additional analysis tools, with the aim of producing a viable, low cost sequencing system.$2 million (3 years),”High Accuracy Air Jordan 19s Single Molecule DNA Sequencing by Synthesis”This team of investigators has developed a fully automated instrument capable of sequencing single molecules of DNA on a planar surface. The group is now developing a high throughput version of this technology for the re sequencing of whole human genomes. The sequencing strategy involves obtaining short reads (about 25 DNA bases) from billions of strands of DNA immobilized on a surface inside a reagent flow cell. The research plan aims to advance this strategy to achieve high accuracy, re sequencing of highly variable genomes and assembly of never before sequenced genomes.